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SkilliBlog https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php?tempskin=_atom b2evolution 2024-07-25T19:43:03Z SAE J1939 protocol Arpitha https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php/sae-j1939-protocol 2022-08-09T12:37:00Z 2022-08-29T08:56:47Z Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Item::$cache_has_content_parts is deprecated in /home/u723625802/domains/skillicon.in/public_html/blogs/inc/items/model/_item.class.php on line 4911

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SAE J1939 protocol

We know controller area network (CAN) is used by most of the vehicles for communication between the different ECUs, CAN provides basis only for communication but not for conversion of data or language. As the complexity of the network increased, there was a need for standard communication protocol to handle the complexity of the network.

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) defined the J1939 protocol which is a higher layer protocol built on CAN, which aims at providing standard communication irrespective of the vehicle manufacturer, engine/transmission manufacturer, etc. Today SAE J1939 is used in heavy-duty vehicles like buses, trucks, agriculture machinery, military applications, construction vehicles like cranes, mining vehicles like bulldozers, etc.

SAE J1939 protocol has a 29-bit identifier defined within CAN 2.0B and it has a speed of around 250 kbit/s to 500 kbit/s. The physical layer defines the electrical interface to the bus, the data link layer defines details of messages, bus access, and detection of an error, and the application layer provides details of data length, PGN and SPN diagnostics message, and DTCs (diagnostics trouble code).

PGN (Parameter group number) refers to an 18-bit unique parameter identifier for defining the message and SPN (suspect parameter number) refers to the CAN signal identifier, SPNs are grouped under PGNs which describe parameter details such as bit start position, offset, scale, bit length, unit, etc., all PGNs and SPNs are defined in SAE J1939 documentation. Example: PGN 65262 specifies Engine Temperature defined in SAE J1939. Under PGNs, SPNs are defined as Engine fuel temperature (SPN-110), Fuel temperature (SPN- 174), Engine oil temperature (175), Engine Intercooler temperature (SPN-52), Turbocharger oil temperature (SPN-176), etc.

SAE J1939 is also used for diagnostic purposes, as the network complexity of heavy-duty vehicles increases, it is necessary to often detect and communicate the fault to all other ECUs, thus diagnostic messages are used whenever DTC (diagnostics trouble code) is detected.

With Silver Scan-Tool and DiagRA D, complete diagnostics function can be carried out, this tool supports SAE J1939 standards and meets all OBD standards required by approval authorities worldwide. It Supports all sub-functions according to SAE J1979 as well as ISO 15031-5 and WWH-OBD according to ISO 27145. Thus, Silver Scan-Tool and DiagRA D provide a complete diagnostic package. As a result, it’s easy to perform, record, and also evaluate complex diagnostics of all vehicle control units with this software.     

SAE J1939 protocolSAE J1939 protocol       

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CAN bus error types. Arpitha https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php/cab-bus-error-types 2022-08-09T08:53:00Z 2022-08-22T13:57:28Z Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Item::$cache_has_content_parts is deprecated in /home/u723625802/domains/skillicon.in/public_html/blogs/inc/items/model/_item.class.php on line 4911

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CAN bus error types.

 

We know the importance of the CAN bus in the automotive industry. Due to its robust performance, it makes ideal for multiple error detecting mechanisms. Error in CAN bus occurs due to many reasons such as improper wiring, faulty cables, inaccurate transmission, improper CAN nodes, noise, etc.

CAN bus needs to detect the error, classify and fix it for continuous and better performance of the system. CAN controller consists of an On-chip error detection mechanism that is responsible for detecting the error during the transmission or reception of a message, if the node detects an error it will raise an error flag.

There can be five types of CAN bus error:

  1. Bit error: All the receiver nodes read the data bit by bit comparing it with the transmitted value. Bit error will occur at that stage when the transmitted bit does not match with the received bit.
  2. Bit stuff error: This method is used in the CAN network for Synchronization purposes. The transmitter node is going to transmit five consecutive bits of the same logic level, then the sixth bit must be a compliment, and the sixth bit which is added during transmission will be automatically removed at the receiver end. Bit stuffing also ensures that the bits are not misinterpreted as an error frame that marks the end of a message. Thus if the receiver node finds six sequences of bits with the same logic level, then the receiver will confirm this as a bit stuff error.
  3. Form error: ISO -11898 defined CAN standard frame format, in which certain fields must follow the logic level as defined. ACK, CRC and 8-bit EOF must be recessive. SOF should be dominant. Also, the delimiter bit should be maintained by placing it in a predefined place. If any of these logic levels are different then the receiver node will detect that as a Form Error.
  4. CRC(Cyclic redundancy check) field: The transmitting node calculates the 15-bit CRC value and sends it to the receiver node, all the receiver nodes will also calculate the CRC value and compare it with the transmitted CRC value to check if they are the same. If the CRC value differs, the receiver node will send an error flag over the CAN bus.
  5. ACK(Acknowledgement) error: Transmitter will send the recessive ACK bit present in the CAN message to the receiver node. All the receiver nodes irrespective of the message received should send the dominant bit to the transmitter node to check the reception of the message, if the receiver node fails to send the dominant bit in the ACK field then the transmitter confirms it as an ACK error.
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In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR) Arpitha https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php/in-use-monitor-performance-ratio-iumpr 2022-06-29T12:38:00Z 2022-07-18T06:30:17Z Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Item::$cache_has_content_parts is deprecated in /home/u723625802/domains/skillicon.in/public_html/blogs/inc/items/model/_item.class.php on line 4911

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In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR)

On board diagnostics include on-board monitoring strategies capable of detecting emission-related malfunctions while driving the vehicles on road.

The Malfunction indicator light (MIL) which is present on the panel will illuminate when a malfunction is detected. But certain conditions should be satisfied before MIL illuminates, i.e. when OBD determines the malfunction it generates a Diagnostic trouble code (DTC) or fault code and stores it in the ECU. If the malfunction is detected again before the next driving cycle in which the suspected system is monitored, the MIL illuminates continuously, and a confirmed fault code is generated from engine data. If in case the malfunction is not detected till the end of the driving cycle, the stored fault code will be erased. If the malfunction is not detected in the next driving cycle, the MIL can be turned off but the trouble code is still stored at least for 40 engine warm-up cycles.

To measure the frequency of monitoring, an in-use monitor performance ratio is used. It defines the operational frequency of several monitoring strategies relative to specific drive cycle conditions.

It can be defined as the “Number of monitoring events/Number of driving events”, It means the ratio of the number of times the conditions have existed under which a monitor should detect a malfunction to the number of driving cycles applicable to that monitor. Each component such as fuel system, cooling system, exhaust gas sensors, other emission control system monitoring, etc. requires its own ratio. This IUMPR is measured by incrementing a counter when the monitoring conditions operate on-road and also tracking when the vehicle driving cycle meets specified milestones.

To view IUMPR value you can use diagnostics tools like Silver Scan tool or DiagRA D. Each software comes with all the functions you need to carry out complete OBD diagnostics and archive them in a legally secure manner. Measured values are displayed numerically and graphically. The below figure shows the IUMPR measured in the silver scan tool.

In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR)
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A Simple introduction to CAN Bus Arpitha https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php/a-simple-introduction-to-can-bus 2022-06-28T06:05:00Z 2022-08-16T06:12:12Z Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Item::$cache_has_content_parts is deprecated in /home/u723625802/domains/skillicon.in/public_html/blogs/inc/items/model/_item.class.php on line 4911

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CAN stands for Controller Area Network, it is defined in ISO-Standard 11898, often used in automotive environments. It acts as a nervous system inside the vehicle for enabling communication between all ECUs(Electronic Control Unit) with each other applications.


ECUs are interconnected with the CAN bus, information sensed by one ECU will be shared with other ECUs e.g., engine control module, brake control module, transmission control module, Airbag, audio system, etc. A modern car has more than 70 ECUs.


CAN bus is a Multiplexed network, all ECUs(nodes) are connected to physically conventional two wire bus. The wire is a twisted pair with a 120 Ω Terminating Resistors to avoid the reflections. This bus uses differential wired AND signals, CAN high (CANH) and CAN low (CANL), the signal will be in dominant state when CANH > CANL. A Logical 1 is said to be dominant state, while a Logical 0 bit is recessive state. ECU will broadcast the message, all other ECUs will receive the message on CAN network and each ECU will check the data and decide whether to receive or ignore it.

 

A Simple introduction to CAN Bus

 

A Simple introduction to CAN Bus

                                  

Communication over the CAN bus is done through CAN frames. Standard CAN frame consists of 11 bits identifier (CAN 2.0A), which is used by most of the vehicles. The extended CAN frame consists of 29-bit identifier frame (CAN 2.0B).


Structure of CAN frame.

A Simple introduction to CAN Bus

SOF (Start of frame): Identifies start of frame.

Arbitration field: All node consists of arbitration ID which determines the priority of the messages on the bus. If multiple nodes try to transmit a message onto the CAN bus at the same time, the nodes with high priority (lowest arbitration ID) automatically gets bus access. Nodes with a lower priority must wait until the bus becomes free before trying to transmit again. The waiting devices wait until the end of the frame section is detected.


RTR: The Remote Transmission Request indicates whether a node sends data or requests dedicated data from another node.


Control field: To distinguish standard and extended frame formats, the IDE-bit (identifier extension bit) is used. A reserved bit intended for future extensions follows. The last 4 bits (DLC) identify the number of bytes included in the data field.


Data filed: The data field consists of actual data being transmitted. Its length can range from 0 to 8 byte.
CRC field: Contains a check sum that is used to identify bit errors.


ACK(Acknowledgment) field: The transmitter node sends a recessive ACK bit and every receiver node that identifies the message checks if the received message is accurate if yes it overwrites ACK bit with a dominant bit. If the receiving node does not change this bit, it means that the message may have an error and will be discarded.


EOF (End of Frame): Identifies the end of message.


To analyze CAN signals you can use CANEasy. CanEasy is a Windows based analysis and testing environment for CAN (FD), LIN and Automotive Ethernet. It can be used directly without any complex configuration or programming. CanEasy automatically simulates the behavior of all ECUs based on the communication matrix. The user can directly access all signals of the database, via generated panels and editors. Due to the automatically generated panels, the high level of automation and programmability, CanEasy can be used very quickly and flexibly. It saves effort, time and costs compared to common development tools.

A Simple introduction to CAN Bus
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Vehicle Diagnostics – Internet of Vehicles Arpitha https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php/vehicle-diagnostics-internet-of-vehicles-1 2022-06-13T02:53:00Z 2022-07-15T03:55:19Z Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Item::$cache_has_content_parts is deprecated in /home/u723625802/domains/skillicon.in/public_html/blogs/inc/items/model/_item.class.php on line 4911

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With BSVI (Bharath Stage 6 – BS6), On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) has become popular among the masses. More and more people have started to recognize and understand the role of electronics in automobiles.

Vehicle diagnostics opens up a plethora of applications in automotive engineering and forms the future of Automotive – Internet of Things “IoT” (also called as Internet of Vehicles “IoV”). As the name suggests diagnostics is about finding the faults in the system, but it does not stop there. With diagnostics, we can read not only fault codes but also other data pertaining to the operation of automobiles. We can also instruct the automobile to perform particular actions.

Below are a few applications that are possible with IoV through vehicle diagnostics:

1. Health of the Vehicle

  • Helpful to OEMs/Service stations in avoiding break downs and accidents by determining the issues of the vehicles in advance and fixing them.
  • Helpful to fleet owners in keeping their fleet of vehicles in good condition, thereby delivering on time and effective transportation services to customers.

2. Study of Driving Patterns

  • Helpful to insurance agencies in determining the value of the vehicle by studying the data from the vehicle.
  • The data helps greatly when reselling the vehicle.
  • Helpful to fleet owners in determining the driving patterns of the drivers.
  • Helpful to OEMs in understanding the driving patterns of their customers and accordingly calibrating the vehicles to deliver the best driving experience.

3. Quick access to Accident Data

  • Helpful to insurance agencies and police in determining the cause of accidents.
  • Video from dashboard camera of the vehicle can also be delivered over the air, which can help in determining the extent of accidents so that appropriate help can be sent to the accident site.
  • Helpful to fleet owners to send alternative vehicles to carry the passengers/goods.

4. Tracking Vehicles

  • Helpful to the police in tracking down vehicles.
  • Helpful to fleet owners in tracking the path the driver takes to reach the destination. This will help in optimizing the routes.

5. Immobilize Vehicles remotely

  • Access can be given to police to immobilize stolen/illegal vehicles remotely and trace the vehicles.
  • In GTA style chasing, the cops can immobilize the cars remotely, thereby protecting people and property.

6. Over the Air Software updates

  • Just like smartphones, software updates and calibration changes can be delivered to vehicles over the air. But care needs to be taken that the updates happen only when the car is not in use!.

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5 REASONS FOR USING SILVER SCAN-TOOL FOR OBD CERTIFICATION Arpitha https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php/5-reasons-for-using-silver-scan-tool-for 2022-02-21T12:52:00Z 2022-07-14T11:57:18Z Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Item::$cache_has_content_parts is deprecated in /home/u723625802/domains/skillicon.in/public_html/blogs/inc/items/model/_item.class.php on line 4911

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1.Accuracy of OBD standards: Silver Scan-Tool (SST) is used by authorities themselves for homologation and certification. Using SST you can make sure that there are no unfulfilled OBD conditions before going for certification.

2. One tool for all OBD standards: There is no need to invest in multiple tools for different OBS protocols/standards. SST supports different protocols and standards:

  1. SAE J1979 – passenger vehicle OBD
  2. SAE J1939 – heavy-duty OBD
  3. ISO 27145 – worldwide harmonized OBD.

4. One tool for worldwide markets: SST supports OBD standards accepted by European, American, and Asian countries. If you intend to export vehicles you need not worry about OBD certification.

5. No data configuration needed: You don’t have to worry about configuring data. SST is pre-configured with OBD standards and all you need to do is plug and scan. It saves time and avoids human errors.

6. Quick updates: Any change in the OBD standards are updated and released in a short time. This way we make sure that you stay updated and ready for any certification procedures.

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EVS & DIAGNOSTICS Arpitha https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php/evs-diagnostics 2022-02-21T12:52:00Z 2022-07-15T03:53:42Z Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Item::$cache_has_content_parts is deprecated in /home/u723625802/domains/skillicon.in/public_html/blogs/inc/items/model/_item.class.php on line 4911

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The market for Electric Vehicles is on the rise and development is heading at a fast pace. What about diagnostics on EVs?

This article speaks about different diagnostic standards for different kinds of vehicles and throws light on diagnostics for EVs.

There are different protocols/standards in vehicle diagnostics. The main ones accepted and used worldwide are:

EVS & DIAGNOSTICS

  1. SAE J1979 – This standard is mainly used for passenger vehicles like cars, SUVs, 3 wheelers, and 2 wheelers. The standard is developed for both Gasoline and Diesel engines.
  2. SAE J1939 – This is also called as HD OBD, stands for Heavy-Duty OBD. As the name suggests, the standard is used for heavy-duty vehicles like trucks, buses, and off-road vehicles. Primarily the standard was developed for communication between ECUs and later intensely used for heavy-duty OBD.
  3. ISO 27145 – This standard is also called WWH OBD, which stands for World Wide Harmonized OBD. Its applications are majorly in Heavy-Duty Vehicle. (Interested in a scanner that’s generic to the above 3 OBD standards? Try Silver Scan-Tool – A Plug and Scan generic OBD tool)
  4. UDS – UDS stands for Unified Diagnostic services and follows the document SAE J14229. The above 3 standards are accepted worldwide for certification and homologation by different authorities. UDS enables OEMs or suppliers to set up their own diagnostics which is useful for testing at different levels of development and also after-sales & maintenance. (Interested in an all in one diagnostic tool? Try DiagRA D, read about it, and get to know how it makes testing activities easier)

Now let’s talk a bit about EVs (Electric Vehicles). Until now, there are no OBD standards specific for EVs. For conventional engines, the standards and protocols are matured, accepted, and used worldwide. However, for EVs, none of the authorities or organizations have come up with any standard. The same standards may be used with EVs with changes like Motor speed instead of Engine speed, Battery status, etc. But it needs to be seen how it all turns out to be.

Until then the EV manufacturers and suppliers can use UDS for their own diagnostic applications. It is also seen that some of the EV OEMs are already using UDS.


 
 
 

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9 POWERFUL APPLICATIONS OF VEHICLE DIAGNOSTICS Arpitha https://skillicon.in/blogs/index.php/9-powerful-applications-of-vehicle-diagnostics 2022-02-21T12:52:00Z 2022-07-15T03:55:47Z Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Item::$cache_has_content_parts is deprecated in /home/u723625802/domains/skillicon.in/public_html/blogs/inc/items/model/_item.class.php on line 4911

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Most of the time we associate Vehicle Diagnostics to OBD-II which is a certification requirement and the possibilities are extremely limited. But Vehicle Diagnostics opens up an entire lot of automotive testing possibilities. The following are the uses of Vehicle Diagnostics:

  1. Read data – data like engine speed, vehicle speed, temperatures, pressures, and several other vehicle parameters can be read and hence diagnostics can be used in different stages of testing like End of Line (EoL) Testing, Quality testing, Indoor testing, Outdoor testing, Performance testing, Service Testing and more.
    The A2L file that provides full access to ECU data is many times not available with teams performing EoL/quality/service testing. A2L files are confidential and providing them to different teams is a risky affair. In such cases, Diagnostics comes to the rescue. A diagnostic dataset (in the form of ODX files) can be authored and access to data can be specified in the ODX file. So, for different testing purposes, different ODX files can be authored limiting or allowing data depending on the requirements.
  2. Write data – yes, diagnostics is powerful enough and allows writing data into the ECU. And of course, what data can be written is controlled by limiting access. So, we can easily say that calibration is possible using vehicle diagnostics to a limited extent.
  3. Read trouble codes – The major application of vehicle diagnostics is reading trouble codes (widely called as DTCs). The errors and faults recorded by the ECUs a vehicle can be read out just by a click saving us the time and effort in finding out the problem.
  4. Clear DTC Information – After physically fixing the troubles/faults in the vehicle, the faults codes can be deleted from the memory of ECUs.
  5. Read Freeze Frame Data – When a fault occurs in a vehicle, a fault code is registered. For analysis of the fault, it will be helpful for the engineer if there was more information about the occurrence of the fault than just the fault code. The surrounding information (like engine speed, vehicle speed, temperature, pressure, etc) when a fault occurs is stored in ECU memory called Freeze Frame. Such data can be read out using diagnostics.
  6. Variant Coding – Many different variants of any vehicle are generally released with different features. Changing the software on the ECU to turn the features ON/OFF is not effective and involves huge efforts. That’s where variant coding comes into picture using which the engineer can easily enable/disable features of a vehicle depending on its variant. Such variant coding is possible using diagnostics.
  7. Actuator testing – We have learned that reading any sensor data is possible using diagnostics. It is also possible to check how actuators (injectors, brakes, mirror motors, lights, horns, etc) perform using diagnostics.
  8. IUMPR – In Use Monitoring Performance Ratio, is a ratio that tracks how frequently the systems in a vehicle are monitored on the road. Further, it is a measure of how good a system is. Such IUMPR data are read by diagnostics.
  9. Flashing – This is proof of how powerful diagnostics is; ECUs on the vehicle can be flashed just by connecting through the OBD port using diagnostics. A flash sequence is needed which can be defined inside the ODX file.

It is true that diagnostics applications are not as simple as listed above. But it can be made as simple as a click of a button by using DiagRA D. DiagRA D is an all-in-one Diagnostics software which groups and display data in a simple and human-readable format with the click of a button. DiagRA D reads the ODX file and configures itself with the diagnostics dataset. In case an ODX file is not available, DiagRA D allows the user to create a diagnostic dataset.

With DiagRA D different stages of testing becomes a simple process resulting in decreased testing efforts and increased quality of testing. The burden of understanding the insides of diagnostics is reduced on the part of the engineer resulting in better focus on the testing.

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